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470                HISTORY OF PERSIA
the boundaries of Persia remained practically unchanged
during the last century. In 1843 a Mixed Commission,
including representatives of Great Britain and Russia, was
appointed to adjudicate upon the Perso-Turkish boundary,
which, owing to the population of shifting nomads and the
hilly nature of the country, was a complicated matter to
setde. This Commission led in 1847 to the Treaty of
Erzeroum, by the terms of which each of the neighbouring
powers abandoned some territory to which it laid claim
and agreed to appoint commissioners to define the frontier.
The new Commission met in 1849, I^5? anc^ ^fi at
Mohamera and Baghdad, but without arriving at any de-
finite result. In 1851 Lord Palmerston suggested that
the general line of frontier should be traced at Constantin-
ople, in conformity with the Treaty of Erzeroum, by the
agents of Persia and Turkey, with the assistance of the
commissioners, doubtful localities being left for future
settlement. This suggestion was agreed to, and survey
operations were conducted during a period of eight years
(from 1857 to 1865)5 as the result of which a map was
made of the country between Ararat and the Persian Gulf,
a tract seven hundred miles long and from twenty to forty
miles wide. The Porte was then informed that " in the
opinion of the mediating powers the future line of
boundary between the dominions of the Sultan and the
Shah was to be found within the limits traced on the
map, and that the two Mohamedan Governments should
themselves mark out the'line, and that in the event of
any differences between them in regard to any particular
locality, the points in dispute should be referred to the
decision of the Governments of England and Russia."
In 1907 Turkey, taking advantage of Persian internal
troubles, occupied not only "doubtful localities," but
also what was without question Persian territory. Some
years later, however, a Mixed Commission was once again
constituted, and in October 1914, a day before the
outbreak of hostilities between Russia and Turkey, the
last boundary pillar erected at the foot of Mount
Ararat completed the demarcation of the Turko-Persian